Evisceration And Prosthetic Restoration Of The Human Eye


Analgesic: A pain-relieving treatment.


Anesthesia: Loss of sensation in a part or in the body generally, induced by a nerve injury or a drug.


Anterior chamber: The fluid-filled space between the iris/lens and the inside of the cornea.


Antibiotic: Substance that inhibits the growth of infecting microorganisms.


Atrophy: A wasting of tissues or organs. 


Auto-immune:  A response of the body against its own tissues, as if they were foreign.


Cauterized: Tissue that has been treated to induce the clotting of blood, usually by heating with an electricity or laser.


Conformer: Plastic shell used as a temporary spacer after removal of an eye, placed to preserve the shape of the socket, and later replaced with an ocular prosthesis. 


Conjunctiva: Thin layer of mucosal tissue lining the inside of the lids, continuing onto the sclera, or lining the socket.


Contamination: Any extraneous material that renders a substance or tissue impure.


Cosmetic: Anything that will improve the appearance of a person.


Curette: A surgical instrument in the form of a ring or scoop with sharpened edges, attached to a handle, used to scrape the interior of a cavity .


Dehiscence: In a socket, a rupture of the tissues covering the implant.


Dissection: To separate anatomical structures along natural boundaries; also, the growth of a tumor along tissue planes.


Dressing: Material applied to a wound to exclude air contact and absorb drainage. 


Edema: Excessive fluid within tissues; adj.: edematous.


Endophthalmitis: Inflammation of the tissues inside the eyeball. 


Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball within the orbit. 


Enucleation: The removal of the entire eyeball without cutting into it.


Erosion: A wearing-away of tissues by friction. 


Evisceration: Removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving only the sclera.


Exposure: A bared ocular implant.


Fornices: The furthest pockets of the conjunctival socket. 


Globe: The eyeball proper. 


Histology: The minute structure of the tissues and organs. Adj: histologic.


Implant: Any surgical material inserted into the body.


Impression: In ocularistry, the cast mould made of the inside of the socket. 


Infection: An invasion by microorganisms anywhere in the body.


Interrupted: Surgical sutures that are separate, rather than continous.


Intraocular: Within the eyeball.


Intrascleral: Within the sclera.


Laxity: A lack of suspension, usually in the eyelids.


Lids: Eyelid.


Limbus: The outer rim of the anterior chamber, where the clear cornea meets the white sclera, site of the drainage of aqueous humor and the attachment of the iris to the ciliary body.


Malignant: any cancerous tumor sending seed cells to other body parts (usually via the lymphatic system) which produce additional tumors of the originating tissue type.


Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord.


Motility: In ocularistry, the degree of movement in the socket transferred to the prosthesis.


Nausea: Stomach uneasiness, possibly vomiting. 


Ocularist: A professional maker of artificial eyes.


Ointment: A medicated gel, usually mixed in petroleum jelly.


Ophthalmologist: A medical doctor (MD) trained for over seven years to specialize in diseases of the eye.


Opiate: Any medication containing opium derivatives. 


Optic nerve: Large nerve that carries electrical signals from the retina to the brain.


Orbit: Cone-shaped bony confines of the eye and eye muscles.


Orbital Cellulitis: Infection of tissues in the orbit that produces swelling, bulging,  and redness, often spreading to the orbit from the surrounding sinuses.


Pathologic Specimen: Tissues from any sampling (biopsy) or surgery that are examined by microscope.


Peribulbar: Closely surrounding the eyeball.


Periorbita: Dense layer of connective tissue that lines the orbital bones.


Periotomy: In ophthalmic surgery, an incision around the limbus.


Prolapsing: A falling-out of any tissue or organ.


Prosthesis: The replacement of any body part by an artificial one. 


Proteins: Amino acids or derivatives that can normally aggregate onto contact lenses or ocular prostheses. 


Ptosis: A drooping of the eyelid(s).


Rectus muscles: Four extraocular muscles that mainly pull straight; Plural: recti


Retinal artery: Branch of the ophthalmic artery that feeds the inside of the eye, and is visible through the iris.


Retrobulbar: Behind the eyeball.


Sclera: White outer layer of the eyeball.


Scleral Cover Shell: A thin ocular prosthesis worn over a non-seeing eye.


Sclerotomy: An incision through the sclera. 


Spherical acrylic implant: A plastic ball-shaped replacement after removal of the eyeball that does not allow tissues to grow into it.


Steroid: A drug treatment to control inflammation.


Subarachnoid: Beneath the arachnoid membrane surrounding of the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord. 


Sulcus: In ocularistry, a recession of the upper eyelid or enophthalmos after the healing of surgery.


Suspensory Ligaments: Fibrous structures that hold the eyeball in place as it rotates.


Sutures: The surgical material closing two edges; in ocularistry, these are usually the closing the conjunctival socket.


Sympathetic Ophthalmia: Auto-immune inflammation of the pigmented uvea once thought to cause a similar uveitis in the other (sympathizing) eye.


Tamponade: Pressure on a wound or body cavity, especially to stop bleeding.


Tenonís capsule: Thin, elastic membrane that covers the eyeball from the cornea to the optic nerve, loosely attached to the sclera and extraocular muscles.


Tetracaine: One anesthetic, applied as eye-drops.


Treatments: Any remedy or manipulation designed to aid a patient.


Tumor Cells: Tissues of a cancerous lesion that may spread and grow (malignant) elsewhere in the body, usually carried by the lymphatic system.


Uveal pigment: Dark melanin inside cells of the iris, ciliary body, or choroids.


Uveal Prolapse: Iris, ciliary body, or choroids tissue abnormally outside the pressurized eyeball from injury or incision.


Uveal tissue: Iris, ciliary body, or choroids.


Vascular: Containing blood vessels or pertaining to the circulatory system.


Venous bleeding: Dark blood emanating from veins.


Volume: In ocularistry, the amount of tissue in the orbit that directly affects the position of the implant, prosthesis, and lids.


Wound: An opening into the body caused by surgery or injury